2017年12月30日 星期六

催產素—關於愛的荷爾蒙15個迷人真相



若妳生產過,可能聽說過「催產素」,尤其是餵母奶的媽媽。
If you’ve given birth before, you’ve probably heard of oxytocin – especially if you’re a breastfeeding mother.
催產素是生產時調控子宮收縮的荷爾蒙,哺乳時協助乳汁噴出。
Oxytocin is the hormone that controls uterine contractions during labour, and helps with the milk ejection in breastfeeding.
但這個神奇的神經肽還關乎許多其他的身體功能。
But this amazing neuropeptide is involved in so much more than just those two functions.
研究顯示催產素可以藉由降低血壓與阻斷壓力荷爾蒙,讓人覺得平靜並且改善情緒。
Studies show that oxytocin is calming and can improve mood – it lowers your blood pressure and blocks stress hormones.
它還可以減緩發炎反應,並且促進消化與生長相關的代謝功能。
It can help relieve inflammation and stimulate metabolic functions, like digestion and growth.
無論女性或男性體內都有催產素存在,在社交互動時是個活躍的荷爾蒙。
Oxytocin is present in females and males, and is active in social interactions.
它帶來放鬆、無私與愛的感覺,知名的產科醫師Michel Odent說:「無論我們如何探索愛的本質,催產素一定牽涉其中。」
It brings about feelings of relaxation, selflessness, and love. World renown obstetrician, Michel Odent, says, “Whatever the facet of love we consider, oxytocin is involved.”
催產素在母職適應上也扮演重要的角色,催生或加速產程使用的人工合成催產素,無法在體內與自然產生的催產素發揮相同作用。Pitocin/syntocinon(合成的催產素)無法通過血腦屏障(blood-brain barrier),雖然它可以對身體產生相同的機械式作用(讓子宮收縮),但無法產生相同的行為反應,例如:促進母嬰依附行為。
And oxytocin may be the key to adapting to motherhood. Synthetic oxytocin, however, which is often used to induce or augment labour, does not act the same way in the body as naturally occurring oxytocin. Pitocin/syntocinon does not cross the blood-brain barrier; and while it does produce the same mechanical effects on the body, it does not lead to the same behavioural effects, like maternal attachment promoting behaviours.
這個神奇多功能的荷爾蒙在各種身體活動時會在全身各處出現,發揮各種功能。以下是催產素的15個神奇迷人的真相:
The amazingly versatile hormone is present throughout the body during many different activities, and it serves many functions. Here are 15 fabulous and fascinating facts about oxytocin:

💕真相#1
催產素是一陣一陣釋放的,頻率越高就可以發現越多這個荷爾蒙的功能。寶寶的吸吮引發這樣的釋放,增進乳汁的製造與分泌。
Fact #1:
Oxytocin is released in pulses, and the more pulses the more effects seen from the hormone. Baby’s suckling triggers these pulses, which improves milk production and release.

💕真相#2
寶寶出生時會引發一陣催產素的大量分泌(陰道下段接受器的張力),寶寶體內的催產素濃度也同時達到高點。
Fact #2:
A surge of oxytocin is released as a baby is being born (due to stretching of receptors in the lower vagina), and baby’s oxytocin levels are high at birth, as well.

💕真相#3
女性終其一生分泌催產素的最高峰就是在寶寶剛出生時,胎盤娩出前。要讓這個功能發揮到極致,就是讓寶寶與媽媽有不受打擾的肌膚接觸。
Fact #3:
The highest peak of oxytocin in a woman’s lifetime is right after her baby is born, but before the placenta is delivered – we can maximise the hormone’s potential by placing baby skin to skin with mum and leaving the two undisturbed during the time.

💕真相#4
肌膚接觸增加催產素的分泌—無論是媽媽與寶寶產後即刻肌膚接觸、爸爸幫寶寶按摩、或是媽媽與爸爸手牽手。
Fact #4:
Skin to skin contact increases oxytocin release – whether it’s mother and baby right after birth, dad massaging his infant, or mum and dad holding hands.

💕真相#5
講到生產,硬膜外麻醉阻斷了催產素的徑路,而影響了它的作用。催產素可以提高痛的閾值,或許就不需要硬膜外麻醉。
Fact #5:
Speaking of birth, an epidural can impact the effects of oxytocin by blocking the pathways it travels. Since oxytocin increases your pain threshold, the epidural may not even be needed.

💕真相#6
泌乳激素是刺激乳汁製造的荷爾蒙,而泌乳激素的製造需要催產素的存在,這兩個荷爾蒙在哺乳期是強烈相關的。
Fact #6:
Prolactin, the milk-making hormone, is dependent on oxytocin for its production. The levels of these two hormones are strongly correlated during breastfeeding.

💕真相#7
催產素幫助媽媽與寶寶互動。催產素的濃度與媽媽寶寶互動的頻率呈現正相關,這樣的作用是媽媽與寶寶互利的。
Fact #7:
Oxytocin helps mothers interact with their babies. Oxytocin levels correlate with the amount of mother baby interaction, and both benefit from its effects.

💕真相#8
當寶寶對媽媽乳房施加壓力,催產素就會釋放。所以不要包住寶寶的手或將其移開,讓寶寶的手抱住媽媽的乳房。
Fact #8:
When a baby kneads at the breast, oxytocin is released – so let your baby hug the breast during feeding rather than tucking or swaddling those hands away.

💕真相#9
催產素的釋放在充滿壓力的環境會受到抑制,因為戰或逃的壓力荷爾蒙會抑制催產素。當一個人感覺被支持的、平靜的、溫暖的,就會是一個促進催產素分泌的環境。
Fact #9:
Oxytocin release can be hindered by a stressful environment, as fight-or-flight hormones inhibit oxytocin. But if someone feels emotionally supported, calm and warm, the environment works in favour of her hormones.

💕真相#10
催產素可以幫助寶寶的消化道吸收營養,也幫助營養進入乳汁中(孕期就是進入胎兒體內)
Fact #10:
Oxytocin helps your body use nutrients through digestion, and aids in transferring those nutrients into breastmilk (and to the fetus during pregnancy).

💕真相#11
催產素對腦部的發育有直接的作用,尤其是新生兒的大腦新皮質發育。
Fact #11:
Oxytocin has direct effects on brain growth, especially the neocortex of the newborn.

💕真相#12
催產素於高潮時釋放(無論男性或女性)。高潮對生理與情緒健康都有許多好處,所以不要忘了與你的伴侶一直愛在一起。
Fact #12:
Oxytocin is released during orgasm (male and female). Orgasm has a host of physical and emotional health benefits, so don’t forget to give your partner the nudge now and again!

💕真相#13
當催產素系統出問題時,會影響到心理健康,例如:精神分裂、藥物依賴、自殺。
Fact #13:
Problems with the oxytocin system have been implicated in mental health issues, such as schizophrenia, drug dependency and suicide.

💕真相#14
催產素的正向作用即使離乳之後還可以持續一段時間,哺乳期越長這個作用就越久,對母體健康也有幫助,這部分需要更多的研究證明。
Fact #14:
Positive effects of oxytocin exposure last well past weaning – repeated ‘doses’ of this hormone over the months of breastfeeding can improve maternal health, though more research is needed in this area.

💕真相#15
除了與生殖相關的功能,與好友分享餐食、與關心的人擁抱、輕拍你的狗,都可以讓催產素分泌。如果你覺得心情不好,試著與閨蜜相處,與你關心或喜愛的人擁抱(來個熊抱吧,持續久一點,在擁抱當中放鬆,看有沒有不一樣的感覺)或是與你的伴侶連結…還有其他更多的方法,自己去探索囉!
Fact #15:
Aside from its reproductive roles, oxytocin is released when sharing a meal with a friend, hugging someone you care about, and even when petting your dog. So if you’re feeling down, spend some quality time with a good girlfriend, get your hug on with those you care about and love (and ditch the quickie hug, give it longer than a few seconds, relax into it and see how different it feels!) or get connected with your partner… and we’ll leave the rest up to you!

想了解更多嗎?可以參考以下3本書
Want to learn more?

👍Kersten Uvnas Moberg, Oxytocin: The Biological Guide to Motherhood.
👍Michel Odent’s bookThe Scientification of Love, explores many facets of love, humanity and hormones.
👍Sarah Buckley’s e-book, Ecstatic Birth, explores the hormonal blueprint for normal birth (learn more on her website at www.sarahbuckley.com).

參考資料
😍Bell AF, Erickson EN, & Carter CS. (2014). Beyond labor: The role of natural and synthetic oxytocin in the transition to motherhood. J Midwifery & Women’s Health, 59(1), 35-42. Carter CS. (2014).
😍Oxytocin pathways and the evolution of human behavior. Annual review of psychology, 65, 17-39. Odent M. (2001).
😍The scientification of love. London: Free Assn Books. Odent M. (2002).
😍The first hour following birth: don’t wake the mother! Midwifery Today, (61), 9. Uvnas-Moberg K. (2012).
😍Short-term and long-term effects of oxytocin released by suckling and of skin-to-skin contact. In Mothers and Infants. Evolution, Early Experience and Human Development: From Research to Practice and Policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 299.

翻譯:陳鈺萍  ❤️
譯自
https://www.bellybelly.com.au/pregnancy/oxytocin-facts-hormone-of-love/

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